Funny cat on ice
Vanadinite on Mn-Fe Oxides; Taouz, Er Rachidia Province, Morocco
When you are typing away at your computer, you don’t know what your fingers are really doing.
That is the conclusion of a study conducted by a team of cognitive psychologists at Vanderbilt and Kobe universities. It found that skilled typists can’t identify the positions of many of the keys on the QWERTY keyboard and that novice typists don’t appear to learn key locations in the first place.
“This demonstrates that we’re capable of doing extremely complicated things without knowing explicitly what we are doing,” said Vanderbilt University graduate student Kristy Snyder, the first author of the study, which was conducted under the supervision of Centennial Professor of Psychology Gordon Logan.
A description of the research will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, which recently posted it online.
The researchers recruited 100 university students and members from the surrounding community to participate in an experiment. The participants completed a short typing test. Then, they were shown a blank QWERTY keyboard and given 80 seconds to write the letters in the correct location. On average, they typed 72 words per minute, moving their fingers to the correct keys six times per second with 94 percent accuracy. By contrast, they could accurately place an average of only 15 letters on a blank keyboard.
The fact that the typists did so poorly at identifying the position of specific keys didn’t come as a surprise. For more than a century, scientists have recognized the existence of automatism: the ability to perform actions without conscious thought or intention. Automatic behaviors of this type are surprisingly common, ranging from tying shoelaces to making coffee to factory assembly-line work to riding a bicycle and driving a car. So scientists had assumed that typing also fell into this category, but had not tested it.
What did come as a surprise, however, was a finding that conflicts with the basic theory of automatic learning, which suggests that it starts out as a conscious process and gradually becomes unconscious with repetition. According to the widely held theory – primarily developed by studying how people learn to play chess – when you perform a new task for the first time, you are conscious of each action and store the details in working memory. Then, as you repeat the task, it becomes increasingly automatic and your awareness of the details gradually fades away. This allows you to think about other things while you are performing the task.
Given the prevalence of this “use it or lose it” explanation, the researchers were surprised when they found evidence that the typists never appear to memorize the key positions, not even when they are first learning to type.
“It appears that not only don’t we know much about what we are doing, but we can’t know it because we don’t consciously learn how to do it in the first place” said Logan.
Evidence for this conclusion came from another experiment included in the study. The researchers recruited 24 typists who were skilled on the QWERTY keyboard and had them learn to type on a Dvorak keyboard, which places keys in different locations. After the participants developed a reasonable proficiency with the alternative keyboard, they were asked to identify the placement of the keys on a blank Dvorak keyboard. On average, they could locate only 17 letters correctly, comparable to participants’ performance with the QWERTY keyboard.
According to the researchers, the lack of explicit knowledge of the keyboard may be due to the fact that computers and keyboards have become so ubiquitous that students learn how to use them in an informal, trial-and-error fashion when they are very young.
Mark Ciavarella Jr, a 61-year old former judge in Pennsylvania, has been sentenced to nearly 30 years in prison for literally selling young juveniles for cash. He was convicted of accepting money in exchange for incarcerating thousands of adults and children into a prison facility owned by a developer who was paying him under the table. The kickbacks amounted to more than $1 million.
The Pennsylvania Supreme Court has overturned some 4,000 convictions issued by him between 2003 and 2008, claiming he violated the constitutional rights of the juveniles – including the right to legal counsel and the right to intelligently enter a plea. Some of the juveniles he sentenced were as young as 10-years old.
Ciavarella was convicted of 12 counts, including racketeering, money laundering, mail fraud and tax evasion. He was also ordered to repay $1.2 million in restitution.
His “kids for cash” program has revealed that corruption is indeed within the prison system, mostly driven by the growth in private prisons seeking profits by any means necessary.
Put him under the jail.
Ok but what abovet the company that benefited from these people being locked up?
Wait, that’s my blood type
You’re bigger than he is you’re higher on The food chain!
This would have been more meaningful if it had come from someone besides the straight, white man. You know, like the lady two people over.
Seriously? Seriously, people? Shut the fuck up. Because he is a white straight man making an effort to gather support for equal rights he is unworthy? That his support is nothing? Or that it’s not good enough for him to support equal rights? Get your slick stinky underwear out of your ass crack and stop being so stupid. I’ve heard macklemore get so much shit today for FUCKING SUPPORTING equal rights! He is a straight white man using his privilege in a correct and respectful way and people seem to have a problem with that?! You’re fucking kidding me. So if he just decided to suck someone’s dick the day before, would his support finally mean something?! Man, shut the hell up people. This is support right here, and in the mainstream media.
/end motherfucking rant
reblogging this a million times
do you even understand how much shit macklemore gets because people think he’s gay? do you understand that they kept passing the microphone to her but she didnt want to speak? do you understand that if you’re straight, you can support same sex marriage? because you can. just because he’s straight doesn’t mean his support doesn’t matter. do you get how amazing it is to have a song like this played on the radio? things like this dont hapoen often, and the fact that the same straight goofball who sang “thrift shop” can write something so beautiful like this is amazing. in fact, i think it is fucking amazing that this man is using his speech time to talk about gay rights. he almost forgot to thank his fiancé because he cared about this cause so much. do you know what taylor swift did? fucking insulted her ex. macklemore used his minute and a half (maybe less) of speech time to stand up for what he believe, to stand up for love, to stand up for his family. and you think that just because he’s straight it isn’t valid? that makes you just as close minded as homophobic people in my opinion.
I will never ever not reblog this. Ever.
This is the danger of anti-vaccine propaganda, folks.
How would Clarkson put it?